For greater than 1 / 4 century, I’ve been writing a few theorized function of hashish in historic Judaic temple worship. Cannabis Culture printed one of my first articles on this in 1996, Kaneh Bosm: Cannabis within the Old Testament. Many disputed these claims, and rejected my work, others nevertheless embraced it, and phrase unfold round sufficient on this, that the work took on a life of its personal. Now the idea, has turn out to be a historic actuality, by way of new archeological proof.

The Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University, Volume 47, 2020 – Issue 1, printed the paper Cannabis and Frankincense at the Judahite Shrine of Arad, by Eran Arie, Baruch Rosen & Dvory Namdar, wrote in regards to the evaluation  of unidentified darkish materials preserved on the higher surfaces of two monoliths that have been utilized in a jewish Temple web site. The residues have been submitted for evaluation at two unrelated laboratories that used related established extraction strategies.

On the smaller altar, residues of cannabinoids reminiscent of Δ9-teterahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) have been detected, together with an assortment of terpenes and terpenoids, suggesting that hashish inflorescences had been burnt on it. Organic residues attributed to animal dung have been additionally discovered, suggesting that the hashish resin had been combined with dung to allow gentle heating. The bigger altar contained an assemblage of indicative triterpenes reminiscent of boswellic acid and norursatriene, which derives from frankincense. The further presence of animal fats―in associated compounds reminiscent of testosterone, androstene and ldl cholesterol―means that resin was combined with it to facilitate evaporation. These well-preserved residues shed new mild on the use of eighth century Arad altars and on incense choices in Judah through the Iron Age.

This analysis has led to International headlines, and is rocking the scientific and spiritual world with this astounding Revelation; Newsweek – Cannabis Discovered in Shrine From Biblical Israeli Kingdom May Have Been Used in Hallucinogenic Cult Rituals; BBC – ‘Cannabis burned during worship’ by ancient Israelites – study; Popular Archeology – New analysis reveals Cannabis and Frankincense on the Judahite Shrine of Biblical Arad; The Times(UK) – Judean worshippers were high on cannabis, archaeologists reveal; Haaretz – Ancient Israelites Used Cannabis as Temple Offering, Study Finds: Analysis of altar residue shows worshippers burned pot at a Judahite desert shrine – and may have done the same at the First Temple in Jerusalem. Countless different information sources have verified this examine.

A reconstruction of the Temple web site on the centre of this controversial discovery.

As the Newsweek article described:

“We can assume that the fragrance of the frankincense gave a special ambience to the cult in the shrine, while the cannabis burning brought at least some of the priests and worshippers to a religious state of consciousness, or ecstasy,” Arie mentioned. “It is logical to assume that this was an important part of the ceremonies that took place in this shrine.”

“The new evidence from Arad show for the first time that the official cult of Judah—at least during the 8th century B.C.—involved hallucinogenic ingredients. We can assume that the religious altered state of consciousness in this shrine was an important part of the ceremonies that took place here,” he mentioned.

Recently in April, Youtube as half of their censorship marketing campaign, eliminated my 2014 Pot TV documentary ‘Kaneh Bosm: The Hidden Story of Cannabis‘, which had over 600 thousand views, for ‘false or dangerous’ info. Luckily others copied and shared it so it’s nonetheless obtainable.

The time period kaneh bosm, is now being mentioned by the staff concerned with the archeological uncover, as a possible historic Hebrew identify for hashish, as mentioned on this Haaretz interview LISTEN: High Priests, Holy Smoke and Cannabis in the Temple

This excerpt from my most up-to-date e-book, Liber 420, offers you some concept as to the context of this historic Jewish use and the way it turned prohibited and misplaced:

Kaneh Bosm: Cannabis within the Bible?

Prophets practiced  ecstasy states and should have used incense and narcotics to supply spectacular results…. The Israelite prophets… acted as mediums. In a state of trance or frenzy they associated their divine visions in a sing-song chant, at instances a scream. These states could possibly be induced by music… But the prophets additionally used, and generally abused, incense, narcotics and alcohol… (Johnson, 1987) -Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews

The concept that the Old Testament prophets, could have been utilizing psychoactive substances with a view to attain a shamanic trance through which the revelations of Yahweh could possibly be obtained, is as troubling for modern-day believers, as Darwin’s concept of Evolution was to their 19th century counterparts, as simply as Darwin’s concept of evolution challenged the myths of creation from the Books of Genesis, this entheogenic origin for the Jewish faith, signifies a scientifically and anthropologically based mostly concept on the origins of the Bible itself by way of shamanism and psychoactive vegetation.  As Professor Georg Luck has famous “The idea that Moses himself and the priests who succeeded him relied on ‘chemical aids’ in order to touch with the Lord must be disturbing or repugnant to many. It seems to degrade religion—any religion—when one associates it with shamanic practices…”(Luck, 1985/2006). Luck skilled these reactions himself, when his a long time of analysis into magic rites within the historic world, drew him to such a speculation.  “As I was doing research on psychoactive substances used in magic and religion and magic in antiquity, I happened to come across chapter 30 in the Book of Exodus where Moses prescribes the composition of sacred incense and anointing oil. It occurred to me , judging from the ingredients, that… [these]substances might act as ‘entheogens,’ the incense more powerful than the oil. …”(Luck, 1985/2006)

Professor Luck pointed to the alleged gentle psychoactive results of myrrh and significantly Frankincense, as has been advised by a quantity of current research, (Drahl, 2008; Khan, 2012).  Frankincense incorporates Trahydrocannabinole, which has similarities in molecular construction to Tetrahydrocannabinol  the psychoactive element of hashish. And it has been advised that even in fashionable church rituals, the gentle temper elevating results of this will assist to create a non secular state of thoughts in parishioners shut sufficient to inhale its results. However, this alleged impact has been laborious to breed in any notable method below clinic circumstances. Luck famous this, explaining that “No two kinds of frankincense… have exactly the same effect. There are many varieties, coming from different regions along the ancient incense route, and some of the more potent ones may not be available any more. The blends used in churches today, seem rather mild, if they can be called psychoactive at all” (Luck, 1985/2006).

What Luck, and Johnson each appear to have been unaware of of their feedback in regards to the shamanic nature of the Israeli prophets and their potential use of psychoactive substances, is the proof indicating a job for hashish amongst the traditional Jews on this actual context.

Although there have been a range of strategies relating to references to hashish in scripture, which i’ve explored elsewhere, essentially the most convincing proof for hashish within the Bible, comes by way of the Polish Anthropologist Sula Benet’s etymological investigations into the Hebrew phrase Kaneh Bosm. In her essays ‘Tracing One Word Through Different Languages’ (1936) and ‘Early Diffusions and Folk Uses of Hemp’ (1975), Benet demonstrated that the Hebrew phrases ‘kaneh’ and ‘kaneh bosm’ (additionally translated ‘qaneh’, and ‘qaneh bosm’) recognized hashish, by tracing the trendy time period again by way of historical past,  noting the similarities with the later Mishna time period for hashish, kanabos, in addition to evaluating it to the traditional Assyrian  phrase kunubu (additionally translated qunubu) which has lengthy been considered figuring out hashish, and which was utilized in an virtually an identical ritual context as kaneh bosm was by the traditional Jews.  The root “kaneh” on this building means “cane~reed” or “hemp”, whereas “bosm” means “aromatic”. This phrase appeared in Exodus 30:23, whereas within the Song of Songs 4:14, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:19 the time period keneh (or q’aneh) is used with out the adjunct bosem. As Sula genet has defined, the  Hebrew phrase kaneh-bosm was later mistranslated as calamus, a standard marsh plant with little financial worth that doesn’t have the qualities or worth ascribed to kaneh-bosm. This error occurred within the oldest of the Greek translation of the Hebrew texts, the Septuagint  within the third century BC, after which repeated in following translations.

As Prof. Carl Ruck, of Boston University explains:

Cannabis known as kaneh bosem in Hebrew, which is now acknowledged because the Scythian phrase that Herodotus wrote as kannabis (or hashish). The translators of the bible translate this normally as ‘fragrant cane,’ i.e., an fragrant grass. Once the phrase is accurately translated, the use of hashish within the bible is obvious. Large quantities of it have been compounded into the ointment for the ordination of the priest. This ointment… was additionally used to fumigate the holy enclosed house. The ointment (absorbed by way of the pores and skin) and the perfume of the vessels (each absorbed by dealing with and inhaled as fragrance) and the smoke of the incense within the confined house would have been a really efficient means of administering the psychoactive properties of the plant. Since it was solely the High Priest who entered the Tabernacle, it was an expertise reserved for him… (Ruck, 2009)

Noted cannabinoid researcher and historian, Dr. Ethan Russo, additionally notes:“I think it is absolutely clear that cannabis was in the Holy Land, we have archeological proof dated to the 4th century [AD] there was this carbonized fragment of cannabis that was found in a cave at Bet Shemesh in Israel. Additionally, I firmly believe that kaneh bosm in the Hebrew was cannabis, so I am absolutely convinced it was there. …its mentioned in Exodus that kaneh bosm was part of the Holy Anointing Oil, also used as an incense and it really makes sense.” (Russo, 2003) As Ruck and co-authors have famous the time period “occurs also in Song of Songs 4.14, where it grows in an orchard of exotic fruits, herbs, and spices… It occurs also in Isaiah 43,24 where Yahweh lists amongst the slights received in sacrifice, the insufficient offerings of kaneh bosm; and Jeremiah 6,20, where Yahweh, displeased with his people, rejects such an offering; and Ezekiel 27.19, where it occurs in a catalogue of the luxurious items in the import trade of Tyre…. This conclusion has since been affirmed by other scholars. It is ironic that calamus “sweet flag,” the substitute for the alleged hashish, is itself a identified hallucinogen for which TMA-2 is derived” (Ruck et. al., 2001).

Kaneh bosm is connately related sounding to the Assyrian identify for hashish,  qunubu. And this connection is taken additional by the an identical use of qunubu incenses and ointments for non secular functions, to that of the Holy oil and Incenses of the Old Testament Jews and kaneh bosm.

Recipes for hashish, qunubu, incense, considered copies of a lot older variations, have been discovered within the cuneiform library of the legendary Assyrian king Assurbanipal (b. 685 – ca. 627 BC, reigned 669 – ca. 631 BC). Cannabis was not solely sifted for incense like fashionable cannabis, however the energetic properties have been additionally extracted into oils. “Translating ‘Letters and Contracts, no.162’ (Keiser, 1921),  qu-un-na-pu is noted among a list of spices (Scheil, 1921)(p. 13), and would be translated from French (EBR), ‘(qunnapu): oil of hemp; hashish’” (Russo, 2005). In Babylonian spiritual rites, “inspiration was derived by burning incense, which, if we follow evidence obtained elsewhere, induced a prophetic trance. The gods were also invoked by incense” (Mackenzie, 1915) Records from the time of Asurbanipal’s father Esarhaddon, hashish, ‘qunubu’ as one of the principle components of the “sacred rites”. In a letter written in 680 bc to the mom of the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon, reference is made to qu-nu-bu. In response to Esarhaddon’s mom’s query as to “What is used in the sacred rites”, a excessive priest responded that “the main items…. for the rites are fine oil, water, honey, odorous plants (and) hemp [qunubu].” (Waterman, 1936) Cannabis was clearly an vital ritual implement from early on in Mesopotamia. Professor George Hackman referred to 4000 12 months outdated inscriptions indicating hashish in Temple Documents of the Third Dynasty of Ur From Umma, which  described  a “Memoranda of three regular offerings of hemp” (Hackman, 1937). Evidence signifies that in historic Mesopotamia hashish was additionally ingested in meals for ritual functions in addition to consumed in drinks, akin to the haoma/soma preparations as properly, as rubbed on topically. (Bennett, 2010)

As the 19th century scholar Francois Lenormant famous in Le Magie chez les Chaldean: “The Chaldean Magus used artificial means, intoxicating drugs for instance, in order to attain to [a]state of excitement acts of purification and mysterious rituals increased the power of the incantations Among these mysterious rituals must be counted the use of enchanted potions which undoubtedly contained drugs that were medically effective” (Lenormant 1874).

An Assyrian medical pill from the Louvre assortment has been transliterated: “So that god of man and man should be in good rapport:—with hellebore, cannabis and lupine you will rub him.” (Russo 2005). Similar topical  preparations containing hashish, as shall be mentioned later, happen within the 16th century Sepher Raziel: Liber Salomonis and different grimoires, and have been additionally employed by later occultists Like L. A. Cahagnet, and P. B. Randolph together with others. Other cross cultural references to such topical preparations of hashish have been recognized (Bennett & McQueen, 2001; Bennett, 2006).

Health Canada has finished scientific assessments that present transdermal absorption of THC can happen. The pores and skin is the largest organ of the physique, so of course significantly extra hashish is required to be efficient this fashion, rather more than when ingested or smoked. The individuals who used the Holy oil actually drenched themselves in it. Based upon a 25mg/g oil Health Canada discovered pores and skin penetration of THC (33%). “The high concentration of THC outside the skin encourages penetration, which is a function of the difference between outside and inside (where the concentration is essentially zero)” . Health Canada, who was involved about individuals getting excessive off of hemp physique merchandise,  concluded that, even with THC content material restricted to 10 ppm, “inadequate margins of safety exist between potential exposure and adverse effect levels for cannabinoids in cosmetics, food, and nutraceutical products made from industrial hemp.” (Health Canada, 2001)* I talked to Dr. Geiwitz personally at a convention shortly after this examine was printed and he advised me that he felt this supplied robust proof for the potential psychoactive results of the Holy Oil.

*as Cited in (James Geiwitz, Ph.D, 2001)

Only those that had been “dedicated by the anointing oil of…God” (Leviticus 21:12) have been permitted to behave as clergymen.  In the “holy” state produced by the anointing oil the clergymen have been forbidden to depart the sanctuary precincts (Leviticus 21:12), and the above passage from Exodus, makes fairly clear the sacredness of this ointment, the use of which the clergymen jealously guarded. These guidelines have been doubtless made in order that different tribal members wouldn’t discover out the key behind Moses and the priesthood’s new discovered shamanistic revelations. Or even worse, take it upon themselves to make the same preparation. An occasion that might doubtless result in Moses and his fellow Levites dropping their authority over their historic tribal counterparts. Those who broke this robust tribal taboo risked the penalty of being “cut off from their people”, a digital death-sentence within the savage historic world. Secrets revealed equals energy misplaced, is a rule of thumb that’s widespread to shamans and magicians world huge, and the traditional Hebrew shamans guarded their secrets and techniques as fiercely as any. “The words spoken by the Lord to Moses… ‘where I shall meet with you,’ should be taken in the strictest literal sense. God will appear to the priest who uses the substance in the proper way. But the sanctions against any frivolous, casual use is formidable… By its nature, an ‘entheogen’ is surrounded by taboos, because it gives access to the deity, and the tremendous power it transmutes must be controlled.” (Luck, 1985/2006)

Moreover, this Holy Oil was for use particularly within the Tent of the Meeting, the place the angel of the Lord would “speak” to Moses from a pillar of smoke over the altar. From what might be understood by the descriptions in Exodus, Moses and later High Priests, would cowl themselves with this ointment and likewise pour some on the altar of incense earlier than burning it and through the ritual. “Besides its role in anointing, the holy oil of the Hebrews was burned as incense, and its use was reserved to the priestly class” (Russo, 2007).

the Assyrian King Essarhaddon in a tent to seize incense smoke, A Scythian fumigation tent, and the smoke crammed Biblical ‘Tent of Meeting’

In the Torah, the pillar of smoke that arose earlier than Moses within the ‘Tent of the Meeting’, is known as the ‘Shekinah’ and is recognized because the bodily proof of the Lord’s presence. None of the opposite Hebrews within the Exodus account both see or hear the Lord, they solely know that Moses is speaking to the Lord when the smoke is pouring forth from the Tent of the Meeting. It is difficult to not see all of the classical components of shamanism at play on this description of Moses’ encounter with God, and like Zoroaster, Moses might be seen as a ecstatic shamanic determine who used hashish as a a method of looking for celestial recommendation. Such strategies of invocation actually happen in later magic.

The Magician Moses scryed his messages from the Lord in an act of Biblical capnomancy, and this was a standard use of hashish in magical rituals that has been carried on in occult circles into fashionable instances. As Ernest Bosc De Veze, who additionally wrote a Treatise on Hashish, famous in Petite Encyclopedie Synthetique des Sciences Occultes, in reference to “capnomancy… for divination… the smoke obtained from psychic plants such as verbena, hashish or Indian hemp… [are]used” (Bosc, 1904). In circumstances like this, not solely was there the psychoactive results of the smoke used, however the smoke supplied the partially materials  foundation through which the invoked entity or imaginative and prescient could be seen. “The magician… burned aromatic substances and anointed his/her body with perfumed ointments. The whole set-up for an epiphany was there: now all that was necessary was for the deity to appear” (Brashear, 1991).

…[T]he smoke itself was the epiphany. The smoke was inhaled by the magician and his consumer, and the imaginative and prescient got here in trance. The odor of psychoactive substances… acts on the human mind in a really fast, very predictable method.

…[T]he inhalation of the sacred incense might create a robust imaginative and prescient of the deity within the priest. Other elements have been in all probability concerned too, the odor of the holy oil with which the priest, the altar, and different sacred objects throughout the temple have been anointed, the golden floor of the altar that mirrored the shine of lamps…. The shiny surfaces, reflecting the sacral lamps close by, might assist induce trance within the priest as he was respiration smoke. (Luck, 1985/2006)

Just as Moses obtained his solutions in a billowing cloud of hashish resin infused smoke, we will see from a reference in Isaiah, that when the hashish was missing, the scryed solutions have been harder to carry forth! the Lord complains he has been shortchanged his providing of hashish. When the prophet seeks recommendation the Lord complains:“Thou hast bought me no sweet [smelling]cane (kaneh) with money, neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices: but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities.”

Other textual proof from Isaiah, though not figuring out hashish by identify, provides clear indications that at instances the Lord’s starvation for his favorite smoke was being appeased and hemp was getting used as a shamanic incense contained in the precincts of the temple, in elaborate shamanic ceremonies:

And the posts of the door moved on the voice of him that cried, and the temple was stuffed with smoke.

Then mentioned I, “Woe is me, for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; for mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts.”

Then flew one of the seraphims unto me, having a reside coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar, And he laid it upon my mouth and mentioned, “”Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin purged.” (Isaiah 6:4-7)

Those of us who’re acquainted with cannabis know that it burns in the same solution to each incense and coal and it’s not laborious to think about an elaborately dressed historic shaman, with a masks and fabricated wings, lifting a burning coal of cannabis, or pressed bud, to the lips of the traditional prophet Isaiah.  Interestingly, the holder of the tongs is described as a “seraphim”, which interprets as a “fiery-serpent”, and has been related to the Nehushtan that Moses made and King Hezekiah later destroyed throughout his personal spiritual reforms, as a result of the Israelites have been burning incense to it contained in the temple itself.

Kaneh, (hashish) will also be present in what’s the most stunning piece of prose in the entire Bible, Solomon’s Song of Songs’4.14, the place it the place it grows in an orchard of unique fruits, herbs, and spices:

Come with me from Lebanon, my bride, include me from Lebanon… How rather more pleasing is your love than wine, and the perfume of your ointment than any spice!…The perfume of your clothes is like that of Lebanon…Your vegetation are an orchard of pomegranates with alternative fruits, with henna and nard, nard and saffron, kaneh [cannabis]and cinnamon, with all kinds of incense tree… (Song of Songs 4:8-14)

Solomon has typically been related to magic, and that is significantly true of medieval European magical traditions the place grimoires like, Clavicula Salomonis, ‘The Key of Solomon’ (14th-15th century) and the 17th-century Clavicula Salomonis Regis, ‘The Lesser Key of Solomon’ each of which represents a typical instance of Renaissance magic. Most attention-grabbing of such magical manuscripts, is the 16th century Sepher Raziel:Liber Salomonis, which has been mentioned for its use of hashish ointments for seeing visions in magic mirrors.

However, Solomon’s status for magic, goes again a lot additional than this.  The Testament of Solomon, thought thus far from someday between the primary and third century AD, is one of the oldest magical texts in regards to the historic Jewish king. This textual content is pseudepigraphic catalog of demons summoned by  King Solomon, and the way they are often countered by invoking angels and different magical strategies.  The Testament of Solomon refers to a narrative the place the magician-king forces a demon to spin hemp!  “So I commanded her to spin the hemp for the ropes used in the building of the house of God; and accordingly, when I had sealed and bound her, she was so overcome and brought to naught as to stand night and day spinning the hemp” (The Testament of Solomon, 100-300 AD)

Ingested hashish references have additionally been lengthy advised, reminiscent of that In a 1903 essay, Indications of the Hachish-Vice in the Old Testament, Dr. Creighton, referred to accounts within the books of Daniel, Samuel, and significantly Ezekiel on this regard. “‘Son of man, eat what is before you, eat this scroll; then go and speak to the house of Israel.’  So I opened my mouth and he gave me the scroll to eat….So I ate it, and it tasted as sweet as honey in my mouth….Then the Spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me a loud rumbling sound–May the glory of the Lord be praised in his dwelling-place!–the sound of the wings of the living creatures brushing against each other and the sound of the wheels beside them, a loud rumbling sound.  The Spirit then lifted me up and took me away…”(Ezekiel 3:4-14).

Others have advised that the Important Biblical and Apocrypha determine Ezra, consumed a hashish infused wine.  Ezra was a key determine of the Jewish monotheistic reformation after the Persians had returned them to their homeland. Interestingly, at the very least two researchers, dwelling greater than a century aside and from completely different components of the world, have concluded that Ezra obtained his inspiration for this act, from the identical supply of inspiration as his Zoroastrian overlords did…..  a hashish infused wine! Here is Ezra’s personal account of this. Ezra advised the individuals to not search him for forty days, and he left for the desert, taking with him 5 individuals who have been to behave as his scribes:

“The next day, behold a voice cried to me saying. Esdras open thy mouth, and drink what I give you thee to drink! Then opened I my mouth, and behold, he reached me a full cup, which is full as it were with water, but the color of it was like fire. I took it, and drank: and when I had drunk of it, my heart uttered understanding, and wisdom grew in my breast, for my spirit strengthened and my memory; and my mouth was opened and shut no more: and they sat forty days, and they wrote in the day, and at night they ate bread. As for me, I spake by the day, and I held not my tongue by the night. In forty days they wrote two hundred and four books” 2 Esdras 14:38 to 44.

As Georg W Brown recorded of this greater than a century in the past:

“A voice bid him open his mouth, he—the voice, of course—reached Esdras a full cup.  It can be attention-grabbing to know whose voice it was which possessed such unnatural powers; but we apprehend the reader is rather more anxious to know the contents of the cup… which possessed such wondrous capacity, in all probability the identical possessed by the ‘fruit of the tree’ which grew ‘in the midst of the garden,’ the consuming of which opened the eyes of our first dad and mom, and enabled them to see ‘as Gods knowing good and evil.’ We assume we will furnish this desired info, to do which we’re compelled to anticipate some info current amongst Zoroastrian worshippers; many centuries earlier than the date religionists ascribe to Abraham, and which was practiced in Persia, Assyria and Babylonia on the very time Ezra was writing Jewish historical past below the affect of the ‘fiery cup.’

Among different duties required on occasional sacrifices of animals to Ahura-Mazda, further to prayers, praises, thanksgiving, and the recitation of hymns, was the efficiency…of a curious ceremony referred to as that of the Haoma or Homa. This consisted of the extraction of the juice of the Homa plant by the clergymen through the recitation of prayers, the formal presentation of the liquid extracted to the sacrificial fireplace,… the consumption of a small portion of it by one of the officiating ministers, and the division of the rest among the many worshippers…

What was the Haoma or Homa, the manufacturing of the moon-plant, rising in these areas of  Asia to far north for the profitable rising of the grape, and but yielding such intoxicating properties? It is thought within the medical books as Apocynum Cannabinum, and belongs to the Indian Hemp household, Cannabis Indica being an official preparation from it. It is now identified in India as bhang, and is popularly identified with us as cannabis, the stimulating and intoxicating results of that are well-known to physicians.(Brown, 1890)

More than a century after Brown,  Vicente Dobroruka additionally famous a comparability between the Persian method of shamanic ecstasy and that of Ezra the article, in his essay Preparation for Visions in Second Temple Jewish Apocalyptic Literature,: “Similar drinks appear in Persian literature…Vishtapa has an experience quite equivalent in the Dinkard   where mention is made to a mixture of wine (or haoma) and hemp with henbane… The Book of Artay Viraz also mentions visions obtained from wine mixed with hemp, and for the preparations of the seer…”(Dobroruka, 2002)

Dobroruka revisited this theme in additional element in his later 2006 article, Chemically-induced visions within the Fourth Book of Ezra in mild of comparative Persian materials, and once more attracts direct comparisons between Ezra’s cup of fireplace, and the mang combined infused drinks of the Zoroastrian psychonauts.  Interestingly, Rabbi Immanuel Löw, referred to a historic Jewish recipe (Sabb. 14. Three ed. Urbach, Ninth-11th century)  that known as for wine to be combined with floor up saffron, Arabic gum and hasisat surur, “I know ‘surur’ solely as a alias for the resin the Cannabis sativa” (Low, 1924).

Low made no touch upon the phrase “hasisat” which could be very reminiscent of the identify for hashish resins within the medieval Arabic world  hasis” (cannabis), and the time period is usually thought to have been derived at in that interval. However, the 19th century scholar John Kitto additionally put forth two completely different potential Hebrew phrase candidates for the origins of the time period “hashish” in A Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature. Kitto pointed to the Hebrew phrases Shesh, which originates in reference to some kind of “fibre plant”, and the presumably associated phrase,  Eshishah (E-shesh-ah?) which holds all kinds of considerably contradictory translations reminiscent of “flagon” “sweet cakes”, “syrup”, and likewise “unguent.” This final reference is attention-grabbing in relation to what we’ve already seen regarding the hashish infused Holy Oil, which was mainly an unguent.  According to Kitto, this Eshishah was combined with wine. “Hebrew eshishah… is by others called hashish. this substance, in course of time, was converted into a medium of intoxication by means of drugs” (Kitto 1845:1856). With the cognate pronunciation similarities discovered between the Hebrew Shesh and Eshishah one can solely speculate on the likelihood of two historic Hebrew references to 1 plant that held each fibrous and intoxicating properties. It appears doubtless that what’s referred to is cannabis resin, with the addition of the phrase “surur” indicating the likelihood of cannabis oil, (which the Arabs ready by boiling the tops of the plant, and accumulating the drops of oil that shaped on high of the water). A really potent preparation. “The palm wine of the East… is made intoxicating… by an admixture of stupefying ingredients, of which there was an abundance… Such a practice seems to have existed amongst the ancient Jews…” (Kitto, 1861)

Talmudic reference point out this use as properly: “The one on his way to execution was given a piece of incense in a cup of wine, to help him fall asleep” (Sanh. 43a). Such preparations have been used by the traditional Jews, for ritual intoxication, and for easing ache. A Reverend E. A Lawrence, in an essay on ‘The wine of the Bible’ in a 19th century version of The Princeton Review famous that:

It seems to have been an historic customized to offer medicated or drugged wine to criminals condemned to demise, to blunt their senses, and so reduce the pains of execution. To this tradition there may be purported to be an allusion, Prov. xxxi. 6, ‘Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish,’ …To the identical customized some suppose there’s a reference in Amos 8, the place the ‘ wine of the condemned’  is spoken of… The depraved right here described, along with different evil practices, imposed unjust fines upon the harmless, and spent the cash thus unjustly obtained upon wine, which they quaffed in the home of their gods…

Mixed wine is usually spoken of in Scripture. This was of completely different varieties… generally, by lovers of robust drink, with spices of varied varieties, to offer it a richer taste and better efficiency (ls. v. 22; Ps. lxxv. 8). The ‘ royal wine,’ actually wine of the dominion… Esther i. 7), denotes likely the perfect wine, such because the king of Persia himself was accustomed to drink. (Lawrence, 1871)

Thus, this infused wine, not solely had ache numbing qualities, however was additionally “quaffed in the house of their gods” giving clear indication it was wanted for entheogenic results as properly. That it’s in comparison with the wines of the Kind of persia, additionally brings us again to the hashish infused wines of the Zoroastrian interval, reminiscent of that taken by King Vishtaspa. In reference to “unguents” such because the Holy oil, inserting “incense” into wine, we’re reminded of the hashish infused incenses and anointing oils referred to earlier, indicating these substances could have come to have been positioned instantly into wine.  In  regards to  myrrhed wine, it’s value noting that Dr. David Hillman, who holds mixed levels in Classics and Bacteriology, has advised that historic myrrh was typically doctored with hashish resins “The [ancient]Arabs… will take the rub, basically the hashish… they adulterate it with myrrh, so you end up with these combinations of plants that actually end up together… myrrh and cannabis, you see them associated… often” (Hillman, 2015).


Now what’s the world going to say after they discover out that some centuries after this Jewish use, Christians have been utilizing hashish for its miraculous therapeutic properties, in addition to in entheogenic initiation rituals? Jesus took the restricted use of hashish from the Priests and kings, and introduced it to the individuals. Jesus was a Cannabis Activist.

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